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Using Apache HTTP Server on Microsoft Windows - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4








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Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4



Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.4 > Platform Specific NotesUsing Apache HTTP Server on Microsoft Windows

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    This document explains how to install, configure and run
    Apache 2.4 under Microsoft Windows.  If you have questions after
    reviewing the documentation (and any event and error logs), you
    should consult the peer-supported
    users' mailing
    list.

    This document assumes that you are installing a binary
    distribution of Apache. If you want to compile Apache yourself
    (possibly to help with development or tracking down bugs),
    see Compiling Apache for Microsoft
    Windows.
  
 Operating System Requirements
 Downloading Apache for Windows
 Customizing Apache for Windows
 Running Apache as a Service
 Running Apache as a Console Application
 Testing the Installation
 Configuring Access to Network Resources
 Windows Tuning
See alsoComments


Operating System Requirements
    

    The primary Windows platform for running Apache 2.4 is Windows
    2000 or later. Always obtain and
    install the current service pack to avoid operating system bugs.

    Apache HTTP Server versions later than 2.2 will not run on any
    operating system earlier than Windows 2000.
  

Downloading Apache for Windows
    

    The Apache HTTP Server Project itself does not provide binary releases of
    software, only source code. Individual committers may provide 
    binary packages as a convenience, but it is not a release deliverable.
    If you cannot compile the Apache HTTP Server
    yourself, you can obtain a binary package from numerous binary distributions
    available on the Internet.

    Popular options for deploying Apache httpd, and, optionally, PHP
    and MySQL, on Microsoft Windows, include:
    
    ApacheHaus
    Apache Lounge
    BitNami WAMP Stack
    WampServer
    XAMPP
    
  

Customizing Apache for Windows
    

    Apache is configured by the files in the conf
    subdirectory. These are the same files used to configure the Unix
    version, but there are a few different directives for Apache on
    Windows. See the directive index
    for all the available directives.

    The main differences in Apache for Windows are:
    
      Because Apache for Windows is multithreaded, it does not
      use a separate process for each request, as Apache can on Unix.
      Instead there are usually only two Apache processes running: a
      parent process, and a child which handles the requests. Within
      the child process each request is handled by a separate thread.
      

      The process management directives are also different:

      MaxConnectionsPerChild:
      Like the Unix directive, this controls how many connections a single
      child process will serve before exiting.
      However, unlike on Unix, a replacement process is not instantly
      available.  Use the default MaxConnectionsPerChild 0,
      unless instructed to change the behavior to overcome a memory leak
      in third party modules or in-process applications.

      Warning: The server configuration
      file is reread when a new child process is started. If you have
      modified httpd.conf, the new child may not start or
      you may receive unexpected results.

      ThreadsPerChild:
      This directive is new. It tells the server how many threads it
      should use. This is the maximum number of connections the server
      can handle at once, so be sure to set this number high enough for
      your site if you get a lot of hits. The recommended default is
      ThreadsPerChild 150, but this must be adjusted to
      reflect the greatest anticipated number of simultaneous
      connections to accept.

      The directives that accept filenames as arguments must use
      Windows filenames instead of Unix ones. However, because Apache
      may interpret backslashes as an "escape character" sequence, you
      should consistently use forward slashes in path names, not
      backslashes.

      While filenames are generally case-insensitive on
      Windows, URLs are still treated internally as case-sensitive
      before they are mapped to the filesystem.  For example, the
      <Location>,
      Alias, and ProxyPass directives all use
      case-sensitive arguments.  For this reason, it is particularly
      important to use the <Directory> directive when attempting
      to limit access to content in the filesystem, since this
      directive applies to any content in a directory, regardless of
      how it is accessed.  If you wish to assure that only lowercase
      is used in URLs, you can use something like:

      RewriteEngine On
RewriteMap lowercase int:tolower
RewriteCond "%{REQUEST_URI}" "[A-Z]"
RewriteRule "(.*)" "${lowercase:$1}" [R,L]


      When running, Apache needs write access only to the logs
      directory and any configured cache directory tree.  Due to the
      issue of case insensitive and short 8.3 format names, Apache must
      validate all path names given.  This means that each directory
      which Apache evaluates, from the drive root up to the directory
      leaf, must have read, list and traverse directory permissions.
      If Apache2.4 is installed at C:\Program Files, then the root
      directory, Program Files and Apache2.4 must all be visible
      to Apache.

      Apache for Windows contains the ability to load modules at
      runtime, without recompiling the server. If Apache is compiled
      normally, it will install a number of optional modules in the
      \Apache2.4\modules directory. To activate these or
      other modules, the LoadModule
      directive must be used. For example, to activate the status
      module, use the following (in addition to the status-activating
      directives in access.conf):

      LoadModule status_module modules/mod_status.so


      Information on creating
      loadable modules is also available.

      Apache can also load ISAPI (Internet Server Application
      Programming Interface) extensions such as those used by Microsoft
      IIS and other Windows servers. More
      information is available. Note that Apache cannot
      load ISAPI Filters, and ISAPI Handlers with some Microsoft feature
      extensions will not work.

      When running CGI scripts, the method Apache uses to find
      the interpreter for the script is configurable using the
      ScriptInterpreterSource
      directive.

      Since it is often difficult to manage files with names
      like .htaccess in Windows, you may find it useful to
      change the name of this per-directory configuration file using
      the AccessFilename
      directive.

      Any errors during Apache startup are logged into the
      Windows event log when running on Windows NT. This mechanism
      acts as a backup for those situations where Apache is not yet
      prepared to use the error.log file. You can
      review the Windows Application Event Log by using the Event Viewer,
      e.g. Start - Settings - Control Panel - Administrative Tools
      - Event Viewer.
    

  

Running Apache as a Service
    

    Apache comes with a utility called the Apache Service Monitor.
    With it you can see and manage the state of all installed Apache
    services on any machine on your network. To be able to manage an
    Apache service with the monitor, you have to first install the
    service (either automatically via the installation or manually).
    

    You can install Apache as a Windows NT service as follows from
    the command prompt at the Apache bin subdirectory:

    
      httpd.exe -k install
    

    If you need to specify the name of the service you want to
    install, use the following command. You have to do this if you
    have several different service installations of Apache on your
    computer. If you specify a name during the install, you have to
    also specify it during any other -k operation.

    
      httpd.exe -k install -n "MyServiceName"
    

    If you need to have specifically named configuration files for
    different services, you must use this:

    
      httpd.exe -k install -n "MyServiceName" -f "c:\files\my.conf"
    

    If you use the first command without any special parameters except
    -k install, the service will be called Apache2.4
    and the configuration will be assumed to be conf\httpd.conf.
    

    Removing an Apache service is easy. Just use:

    
      httpd.exe -k uninstall
    

    The specific Apache service to be uninstalled can be specified by using:

    
      httpd.exe -k uninstall -n "MyServiceName"
    

    Normal starting, restarting and shutting down of an Apache
    service is usually done via the Apache Service Monitor, by using
    commands like NET START Apache2.4 and NET STOP
    Apache2.4 or via normal Windows service management. Before
    starting Apache as a service by any means, you should test the
    service's configuration file by using:

    
      httpd.exe -n "MyServiceName" -t
    

    You can control an Apache service by its command line switches,
    too. To start an installed Apache service you'll use this:

    
      httpd.exe -k start -n "MyServiceName"
    

    To stop an Apache service via the command line switches, use
    this:

    
      httpd.exe -k stop -n "MyServiceName"
    

    or

    
      httpd.exe -k shutdown -n "MyServiceName"
    

    You can also restart a running service and force it to reread
    its configuration file by using:

    
      httpd.exe -k restart -n "MyServiceName"
    

    By default, all Apache services are registered to run as the
    system user (the LocalSystem account). The
    LocalSystem account has no privileges to your network
    via any Windows-secured mechanism, including the file system, named
    pipes, DCOM, or secure RPC. It has, however, wide privileges locally.
    

    Never grant any network privileges to
    the LocalSystem account! If you need Apache to be able
    to access network resources, create a separate account for Apache as
    noted below.

    It is recommended that users create a separate account for running
    Apache service(s). If you have to access network resources via Apache,
    this is required.

    
      Create a normal domain user account, and be sure to
      memorize its password.

      Grant the newly-created user a privilege of Log on
      as a service and Act as part of the operating
      system. On Windows NT 4.0 these privileges are granted via
      User Manager for Domains, but on Windows 2000 and XP you probably
      want to use Group Policy for propagating these settings. You can
      also manually set these via the Local Security Policy MMC snap-in.
      

      Confirm that the created account is a member of the Users
      group.

      Grant the account read and execute (RX) rights to all document
      and script folders (htdocs and cgi-bin
      for example).

      Grant the account change (RWXD) rights to the
      Apache logs directory.

      Grant the account read and execute (RX) rights to the
      httpd.exe binary executable.
    

    It is usually a good practice to grant the user the Apache
    service runs as read and execute (RX) access to the whole Apache2.4
    directory, except the logs subdirectory, where the
    user has to have at least change (RWXD) rights.

    If you allow the account to log in as a user and as a service,
    then you can log on with that account and test that the account has
    the privileges to execute the scripts, read the web pages, and that
    you can start Apache in a console window. If this works, and you
    have followed the steps above, Apache should execute as a service
    with no problems.

    Error code 2186 is a good indication that
    you need to review the "Log On As" configuration for the service,
    since Apache cannot access a required network resource. Also, pay
    close attention to the privileges of the user Apache is
    configured to run as.

    When starting Apache as a service you may encounter an error
    message from the Windows Service Control Manager. For example,
    if you try to start Apache by using the Services applet in the
    Windows Control Panel, you may get the following message:

    
      Could not start the Apache2.4 service on \\COMPUTER 
      Error 1067; The process terminated unexpectedly.
    

    You will get this generic error if there is any problem with
    starting the Apache service. In order to see what is really causing
    the problem you should follow the instructions for Running Apache
    for Windows from the Command Prompt.

    If you are having problems with the service, it is suggested
    you follow the instructions below to try starting httpd.exe from
    a console window, and work out the errors before struggling to
    start it as a service again.
  

Running Apache as a Console Application
    

    Running Apache as a service is usually the recommended way to
    use it, but it is sometimes easier to work from the command line,
    especially during initial configuration and testing.

    To run Apache from the command line as a console application,
    use the following command:

    
      httpd.exe
    

    Apache will execute, and will remain running until it is stopped
    by pressing Control-C.

    You can also run Apache via the shortcut Start Apache in Console
    placed to Start Menu --> Programs --> Apache HTTP Server
    2.4.xx --> Control Apache Server during the installation.
    This will open a console window and start Apache inside it. If you
    don't have Apache installed as a service, the window will remain
    visible until you stop Apache by pressing Control-C in the console
    window where Apache is running in. The server will exit in a few
    seconds. However, if you do have Apache installed as a service, the
    shortcut starts the service. If the Apache service is running
    already, the shortcut doesn't do anything.

    If Apache is running as a service, you can tell it to stop by opening another console
    window and entering:

    
      httpd.exe -k shutdown
    

    Running as a service should be preferred over running in a
    console window because this lets Apache end any current operations
    and clean up gracefully.

    But if the server is running in a console window, you can
    only stop it by pressing Control-C in the same window.

    You can also tell Apache to restart. This forces it to reread
    the configuration file. Any operations in progress are allowed to
    complete without interruption. To restart Apache, either press
    Control-Break in the console window you used for starting Apache,
    or enter

    
      httpd.exe -k restart
    

    if the server is running as a service.

    Note for people familiar with the Unix version of Apache:
    these commands provide a Windows equivalent to kill -TERM
    pid and kill -USR1 pid. The
    command line option used, -k, was chosen as a reminder
    of the kill command used on Unix.

    If the Apache console window closes immediately or unexpectedly
    after startup, open the Command Prompt from the Start Menu -->
    Programs. Change to the folder to which you installed Apache, type
    the command httpd.exe, and read the error message. Then
    change to the logs folder, and review the error.log
    file for configuration mistakes. Assuming httpd was installed into
    C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.4\,
    you can do the following:

    
      c: 
      cd "\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.4\bin" 
      httpd.exe
    

    Then wait for Apache to stop, or press Control-C. Then enter the
    following:

    
      cd ..\logs 
      more < error.log
    

    When working with Apache it is important to know how it will
    find the configuration file. You can specify a configuration file
    on the command line in two ways:

    
      -f specifies an absolute or relative path to
      a particular configuration file:

      
        httpd.exe -f "c:\my server files\anotherconfig.conf"
      

      or

      
        httpd.exe -f files\anotherconfig.conf
      

      -n specifies the installed Apache service
      whose configuration file is to be used:

      
        httpd.exe -n "MyServiceName"
      
      
    

    In both of these cases, the proper
    ServerRoot should be set in
    the configuration file.

    If you don't specify a configuration file with -f
    or -n, Apache will use the file name compiled into the
    server, such as conf\httpd.conf. This built-in path
    is relative to the installation directory. You can verify the compiled
    file name from a value labelled as SERVER_CONFIG_FILE when
    invoking Apache with the -V switch, like this:

    
      httpd.exe -V
    

    Apache will then try to determine its ServerRoot by trying the following, in this order:

    
      A ServerRoot directive
      via the -C command line switch.

      The -d switch on the command line.

      Current working directory.

      A registry entry which was created if you did a binary
      installation.

      The server root compiled into the server. This is 
      /apache by default, you can verify it by using 
      httpd.exe -V and looking for a value labelled as
      HTTPD_ROOT.
    

    If you did not do a binary install, Apache will in some
    scenarios complain about the missing registry key. This warning can
    be ignored if the server was otherwise able to find its
    configuration file.

    The value of this key is the
    ServerRoot directory which
    contains the conf subdirectory. When Apache starts it
    reads the httpd.conf file from that directory. If
    this file contains a ServerRoot
    directive which contains a different directory from the one
    obtained from the registry key above, Apache will forget the
    registry key and use the directory from the configuration file. If
    you copy the Apache directory or configuration files to a new
    location it is vital that you update the
    ServerRoot directive in the
    httpd.conf file to reflect the new location.
  

Testing the Installation
    

    After starting Apache (either in a console window or as a
    service) it will be listening on port 80 (unless you changed the
    Listen directive in the
    configuration files or installed Apache only for the current user).
    To connect to the server and access the default page, launch a
    browser and enter this URL:

    
      http://localhost/
    

    Apache should respond with a welcome page and you should see
    "It Works!". If nothing happens or you get an error, look in the
    error.log file in the logs subdirectory.
    If your host is not connected to the net, or if you have serious
    problems with your DNS (Domain Name Service) configuration, you
    may have to use this URL:

    
      http://127.0.0.1/
    

    If you happen to be running Apache on an alternate port, you
    need to explicitly put that in the URL:

    
      http://127.0.0.1:8080/
    

    Once your basic installation is working, you should configure it
    properly by editing the files in the conf subdirectory.
    Again, if you change the configuration of the Windows NT service
    for Apache, first attempt to start it from the command line to
    make sure that the service starts with no errors.

    Because Apache cannot share the same port with
    another TCP/IP application, you may need to stop, uninstall or reconfigure
    certain other services before running Apache. These conflicting
    services include other WWW servers, some firewall implementations,
    and even some client applications (such as Skype) which will use port
    80 to attempt to bypass firewall issues.
  

Configuring Access to Network Resources
    

  Access to files over the network can be specified using two
  mechanisms provided by Windows:

  
    Mapped drive letters
    e.g., Alias "/images/" "Z:/"

    UNC paths
    e.g., Alias "/images/" "//imagehost/www/images/"
  

  Mapped drive letters allow the administrator to maintain the
  mapping to a specific machine and path outside of the Apache httpd
  configuration.  However, these mappings are associated only with
  interactive sessions and are not directly available to Apache httpd
  when it is started as a service.  Use only UNC paths for
  network resources in httpd.conf so that the resources can
  be accessed consistently regardless of how Apache httpd is started.
  (Arcane and error prone procedures may work around the restriction
  on mapped drive letters, but this is not recommended.)

  Example DocumentRoot with UNC pathDocumentRoot "//dochost/www/html/"


  Example DocumentRoot with IP address in UNC pathDocumentRoot "//192.168.1.50/docs/"


  Example Alias and corresponding Directory with UNC pathAlias "/images/" "//imagehost/www/images/"

<Directory "//imagehost/www/images/">
#...
<Directory>


  When running Apache httpd as a service, you must create a
  separate account in order to access network resources, as described
  above.
  

Windows Tuning
    
    
      If more than a few dozen piped loggers are used on an operating system 
      instance, scaling up the "desktop heap" is often necessary. For
      more detailed information, refer to the piped logging documentation.
    
  

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CommentsNotice:This is not a Q&A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our mailing lists.

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